stakeholder management in project management

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So who are stakeholders? However, another important criterion for the success … Stakeholder management is a significant task which must be performed effectively for the project’s success. A step-by-step Unito walkthrough in video form. These people include employees, owners, and those on the board of directors. The certification names are the trademarks of their respective owners. At one time you might have even said it was the unrated part of project management. However, if the stakeholder’s requirements are not addressed clearly or if they are not involved in the project, the project’s possibility of success will decrease. However, this relationship is not granted a priori, but must be earned. Conversely, if the project has negative effects on the stakeholder’s requirements, they may be negative and obstructive. This Stakeholder Management Plan will be created in Google Docs. It is important to get their participation and comments at the early stages of a project. While your customer might be affected by the final product, they may not have the power to block or advance any of the work and tasks involved in its completion. As key stakeholders can either make or break the success of a project, having a strong stakeholder management plan is essential for all project managers. The following are common stakeholder management techniques. Because they will provide feedback and their experiences. It identifies and analyzes two items for each stakeholder: The level of interest the stakeholder has in the project, and their ability to control it. Stakeholders can be positive as well as negative. With the tips and tools above, you can turn your project stakeholders into effective project partners. People will only respond if they are engaged. Salience Model to Classify Project Stakeholders The term “stakeholder” is widely used in project management. As we mentioned above, stakeholders can be anyone either external or internal to the organization. Ask them if they’re happy with the project. Once the construction starts, changes become difficult and costly. This can be a real or perceived effect. Types of stakeholders in project management. One way to clearly prioritize stakeholders is through stakeholder mapping, otherwise known as a Power/Interest Grid. To make sure you don’t end up with too many cooks in the kitchen, it’s important to identify them as soon as possible. Data was collected from 130 project professionals in companies from several national and multinational segments operating in Brazil. Discover everything you need to get started. To them, this project wasn’t a complete success. We’re not saying you should completely overhaul your stakeholder strategy at the drop of a hat. Corrective Action vs Preventive Action vs Defect Repair, Functional Organizational Structure Advantages, Salience Model to Classify Project Stakeholders, Types of Stakeholders and Roles in Project Management, Stakeholder Register in Project Management, Stakeholder identification in Project Management, Stakeholder Analysis and Management Strategy, Stakeholder Mapping Matrix in Stakeholder Management. Stakeholder Analysis and Classification in Project Management. They need to involve the stakeholders in the process to share the risks and improve decision making. No project happens in a vacuum. Stakeholder Management in Projects Stakeholder Management in Projects The success of projects relies on the achievement of its objectives in terms of timely delivery and completion within the budget. Stakeholders can be anybody internal or external to the organization. Stakeholders are... Stakeholder Analysis and Stakeholder Management Parties that involved in a project often have various requirements. This process helps you understand your stakeholders, their levels of participation, any potential conflicts, and motivations. The Stakeholder Management Plan, a component of the overall Project Management Plan, is created to specify how the project will interact with each stakeholder. And their main KPIs? Ask them if they require more communication or if the process is working for them. They are the person responsible for. In this article, we will discuss stakeholder management and its importance in project and construction management. Stakeholder identification, stakeholder classification, and stakeholder management are the processes which should be performed in the early stages of the project because they help you shape the project and win support from the stakeholders. The number of external stakeholders may be high or low depending on the type of the project. The team realizes that there are a lot more stakeholders on the project than expected. But stay open to new ideas and changes as required with certain stakeholders. Migrating tools? Typically stakeholders interest is high in the early stages of a construction project… Running a successful project requires a high degree of stakeholder management. A more efficient and productive ticket workflow, from intake to dispatch and escalation. Stakeholder analysis can be performed to understand the stakeholder environment in order to prioritize resources of a project. Maybe a stakeholder wants Slack messages to update on progress instead of an email, or maybe they want to be a bit more hands on. Although it might seem like everyone you work with is a stakeholder these days, it’s important to clearly define what the term means to avoid confusion. The basic format for a stakeholder analysis consists of the following three core steps. Basically, stakeholder management is key for the success of any project. 5. 7E-1265 Rue Berri At this stage in your stakeholder analysis, you will also clearly define roles and levels of participation amongst stakeholders. Password Management; Update & Release Notes; Resources Rooms & Equipments; Microsoft 365 Security. providing a brief outlining the requirements of the project; providing feedback and input throughout the process; High power, highly interested (manage closely, must be fully engaged), High power, less interested (keep satisfied with strategic communication), Low power, highly interested (keep regularly informed to ensure no major issues come up), Low power, less interested (monitor but do not require excessive detail or communication). Some questions to ask as you work to understand key stakeholders: Setting up short, one-on-one meetings with the key stakeholder to find out the answers to these questions can save you endless time in the long run — plus help build and improve your relationship. However, they may still be affected by the actions (or inaction) of the organization. The completion and success of the project will positively impact their team’s KPIs. Tips, tricks, and in-depth content about productivity, collaboration, and work management. Stakeholders are those who have a stake or an interest in a project or strategy undertaken by a company or an organisation, they will be affected in some way be the project and so have an interest in influencing it. Therefore effective stakeholder management in construction projects is very important at this phase. The individual from the product management team who has requested this project is the key stakeholder. Stakeholder identification is the first step to be done before to make a stakeholder analysis. There are four basic steps in stakeholder management. In order to perform successful stakeholder management, the project manager must classify and prioritize various stakeholders needs. Clarifying the interest, involvement and sphere of influence of each stakeholder/ stakeholder group in the project. Stakeholders will determine the success (or not) of your project. This shows them that you’re aware of their needs and will keep them informed at every stage of the project. Even if everything is clearly defined within a project, they can not exist in isolation. They will be affected by the project’s outcomes and/or they will influence the project. In private sector projects, stakeholder groups are often fewer than in public projects. When people don’t know who is doing what, the result is wasted time, frustration, and a delay in task completion. Some stakeholders will like phone calls, others emails. Project Stakeholder Management involves identification of stakeholders, analysis of their expectations and influences, development of appropriate strategies to work with the stakeholders and executing the process. From here, you can see which stakeholders will require more communication and management, and let you prioritize your time and energy there. All shareholders can be considered high-level stakeholders in key initiatives, but this doesn’t work the other way around. Identifying the list of stakeholders to be considered and whether their interest is positive or negative (or neutral). Once you have prepared your plan, you can start to implement it! As the project manager, you should also think about how much support you will need from each stakeholder. Montreal, QC, Canada H2L 4X4. Typically, projects are surrounded by the people, organizations, internal and external stakeholders who have a particular interest in the outcome of the project. With stakeholder management, we mean to create a positive relationship with the stakeholders, meeting their expectations and the goals they agreed upon at the beginning of the project. Because they know that many things can be changed easily before the project starts. Stakeholders are considered as one of the major pillars of construction projects and management of stakeholders is essential to effective project management in the construction industry. "Stakeholder management is the process of managing the expectation of anyone that has an interest in a project or will be effected by its deliverables or outputs. By thinking through when and how stakeholders will be involved, a project team can maximize stakeholders’ positive impact on the project. The … Typically stakeholders interest is high in the early stages of a construction project. Most project managers will agree that stakeholders are a major risk on projects and projects are often delayed as a result of poor stakeholder management. To make sure all of your stakeholders and team members are on the same page, it’s important to clearly establish what a successful project looks like to everyone. Course introduction; Multi Factor Authentication. Stakeholders can be anybody internal or external to the organization. The answers to common (and sometimes not-so-common) Unito-related questions. While everyone might want a say in the project, your key stakeholders are the people who will have final veto power when it comes to major decisions. Managing conflicting interest and involving stakeholders in key project … You must also define the positive and negative stakeholder groups. While many guides to stakeholder management emphasize a need to control your stakeholders and even manipulate them to do what the project manager wants, it’s important to remember that these are professional adults. Shareholders are simply interested in the overall ROI of the business, while stakeholders operate more on a project or team level. Unito’s deep, customizable workflows provide teams with the flexibility to use the tools they want while offering managers greater visibility into and control over work. We use cookies to provide and improve our services. All the projects are subject to external influences. Stakeholder influence often decreases when the construction starts. Management of internal stakeholders may be difficult than external ones. Video guides walking you through common Unito use cases, product how-tos, and mote. View Project Management - Stakeholder Management from PROJECT MA 22 at Anglia Ruskin. In project management, a stakeholder is anyone who is affected by the project. When they benefit from the project, they will be positive and supportive. There may be numerous external stakeholders as well as internal ones within a construction project. It’s important to be flexible when required. The stakeholders are very important in project management. Communication is essential for a positive relationship with each of your stakeholders. The role of stakeholders in project management is important because of the following reasons: They bring experience to the table Stakeholders often provide invaluable expertise about the project. So you need to engage with them. A good stakeholder analysis will provide an overview of everyone’s influence and involvement in the project, as well as what is needed for success. Stakeholders need clear business communications, free of jargon, that fit their busy schedule and provide them with the information that applies to their project interest. Four stages of Stakeholder Management. Here’s what you need to know. They may be individuals or organizations who are not part of the client organization. Instead of a one-way approach, the following stakeholder management processes allow room for nuance and individual interpretation according to your specific context and experience. Some stakeholders will demand in depth task reports, while others will want overall project status reports. It includes all the processes that are needed to identify the people, groups, and organizations that can impact or can be affected by the project. Stakeholders can be individuals who are involved in the project actively. Offered by Coursera Project Network. Internal and external stakeholder management may be difficult especially in construction projects. Sync all of your tools, and have access to the information you need wherever you’re working from. Nothing causes more confusion during a project than unclear roles. Stakeholder management — the process of organizing, monitoring, and nurturing relationships with your stakeholders — has a huge impact on your ability to facilitate projects and keep your stakeholders (and team members) happy. These stakeholders are coming from within the house!!! There’s a workflow for that. As the projects you manage get bigger and more complex, you’ll start to notice you’re dealing with more and more people on a daily basis. This is where stakeholder management becomes so important. Like external stakeholders, shareholders (other than employees who own shares) typically don’t take part in the day-to-day work of the company. When it comes to conflict management with difficult stakeholders, take a moment to pause and put yourself in their shoes. Below are some of the examples for Internal Stakeholders. A Guide for Beginners, What is PMO? Unito is a workflow management solution that allows organizations to build alignment, ease collaboration, and optimize the flow of work across teams and tools. Coordinating a big team? Once everyone recognizes what constitutes a successful outcome, it becomes easier to meet expectations. Whether it’s a difficult discussion or a stakeholder is simply expressing their needs, it’s important to listen closely to what is being said. A Stakeholder register is a project management document that describes and classifies the stakeholders of the project. They could be internal or external: a department, a project sponsor, the project management board, an external entity such as government, or … Note that this is an important concept for the CAPM, PRINCE2 and PMP Certification exams. But now, the team is unsure of who should be included as stakeholders in the communication management plan. Seamlessly plan, launch, monitor, and communicate with all stakeholders from one place. In this article, we discuss internal stakeholders, external stakeholders, and stakeholder management. All Rights Reserved. The client organization may also involve stakeholders with different interests and expectations in the project. It is the project managers business to balance the stakeholder involvement and isolation in order to complete the project successfully. Providing pre-sales support? Stakeholder management was first observed in Scandinavian management where they started differentiating between shareholder theory and stakeholder theory. In Stakeholder Management, External stakeholders are entities that are not in your organization but are impacted by or impact your organization’s performance. Always answer stakeholder correspondence in a timely manner, and never leave them guessing. They can be clients, executives, team leads/managers, or even customers, as long they have a vested interest in the project’s outcome. Stakeholder Management is the process of managing the needs and expectations of anyone who has an interest in a project or will be affected by the project. For effective stakeholder management, it is better to prepare this document at the beginning of projects. Learn how businesses big and small are using Unito to solve challenges while saving time and money. They are directly involved in the day-to-day management, processes, and operations of the business. (ie. This is not necessarily the case with a key stakeholder. The first step in any stakeholder management plan is to conduct a stakeholder analysis. While these terms are often used interchangeably, there are many differences between stakeholders and shareholders. External stakeholders, or secondary stakeholders, on the other hand, do not have a direct relationship with the company through employment or investment. There may be numerous external stakeholders as well as internal ones within a construction project. Stakeholder management is a difficult and complex task because, a large number of people involved in a project with different levels of power, authority, and interests. We’ll show you how to effectively manage stakeholders so that you can boost efficiency and lead cooperative, successful projects from start to finish. Think about what they are saying and process it from their point of view. External stakeholders. Some are supportive and some are opposed to the project. Key project stakeholders are the people who have initiated the specific project and have the power to make direct decisions that impact the final product. Save time and effort coordinating, executing, and collaborating on projects. Different projects need different stakeholders thus the project stakeholder management is employed. Who influences their opinions, and who might be influenced by their opinions. The discussion on stakeholders went better than expected. Used to determine if footer.php has loaded for integration tests, Project Scope: An Essential Part of Project Management Success, What is Project Management? When you’re transparent and accessible, you help build stakeholder trust and respect. As a project manager, people management is a key part of your role. Top management may include the president of the company, vice-presidents, directors, division managers, the corporate operating committee, and others. Aim to make Stakeholder Management an integral part of your project, rather than treating it as a side task. A positive stakeholder will benefit from the successful achievement of a project, either by increasing their own life quality or by increasing the profit. However, it increases again just before the handover phase. Project Management Lecture 4 – Stakeholder Management Andre Samuel Previous Lecture • Project Relational stakeholder management exerts influence on the three types of trust: intuitive, integrity, and competence. A Stakeholder is anyone who has an interest in a given project. In this project, you will create a Stakeholder Management Plan that helps the project manager and the project team track who is involved in the project, their individual roles, and how often they will receive updates. For example, say a product management team asks the copywriting team to develop a guide to the company’s newest product. This article aims to analyze the influence of stakeholder management on trust in project environments. They can be anyone within the organization. A stakeholder analysis matrix can be a useful tool for this purpose. Every project can include different types of stakeholders and that might impact how you interact with them. Internal stakeholders are people or groups within the business, such as team members, managers, executives, and so on. Ultimately, to explain that “people” management is a very important part of project management. Implement Your Stakeholder Management Plan. Take an anticipatory approach to communications, relaying key messages or changes to them before they even have to ask. As you work with stakeholders directly on a daily basis, here are some tips and tricks to ensure the process goes as smoothly as possible. They may have various expectations and interests on the project. In order to perform successful stakeholder management, the project manager must classify and prioritize various stakeholders needs. Discover our media kit, check out existing media coverage, or contact our team. Internal stakeholders are individuals or teams in your organization who have an interest or concern in a strategy, plan, product or process. Managing stakeholders is a critical piece of project management. External stakeholders can include customers, individuals in the community, public groups, suppliers, and more. Abstract. When it comes to dealing with stakeholders, it pays to be as direct as possible (without being rude, of course). Internal stakeholders, also known as primary stakeholders, include anyone who works for your business or organization. For example in a publicly funded project, the number of external stakeholders is often high. At this step, you list all the stakeholders by the help of the project team. They may have power or influence to supply resources to affect the outcome of the project. A Guide for Project Managers, A RACI Chart Definition, Example, and How to Use It for Project Clarity. For example, regulatory bodies, neighbors, shareholders, funders are the stakeholders of a construction project. After you’ve identified the stakeholders who will play the biggest part in the project, you need to take the time to understand their needs, characteristics, and interests. Project Stakeholder Management; In doing a quick refresh of the ten Knowledge Areas, in my mind, “scope” (or better known as requirements management) is actually the Over Arching Knowledge Area, as the scope of the project determines much of the project outputs and the other Knowledge Area deliverables. Stakeholder management is key for any projects success. Stakeholders can be classified into two major groups which are internal and external stakeholders. When you avoid passive discussions, you’re able to clearly establish expectations and relationships in the most efficient manner possible. A stakeholder map is a standard matrix that outlines the four categories a stakeholder will fall into: Once you have your key stakeholders plotted on your stakeholder map, you can easily see who has the power to affect your project. When the stakeholders influence the project in order to meet their own requirements, this will create significant risks such as scope changes, an increase in the complexity and the costs. In project management, the term stakeholder is used to describe individuals, groups, or organizations which have interests in the outcome of the project. Now that you have a general understanding of who your stakeholders are, you need to consider what level of power each person or group has when it comes to the actual project. Everyone involved or affected by a project outcome is considered to be a stakeholder. Now available: Airtable, Asana, Basecamp, Bitbucket, ClickUp, GitHub, GitLab, HubSpot, Jira, Jira Service Management, monday.com, Salesforce, Smartsheet, Teamwork, Trello, Wrike and Zendesk. So you need to engage with them. If you choose to use a project management software, you’ll be able to efficiently communicate … Project managers depend on people to respond to the outputs and benefits that they deliver. someone who has an interest in or who is affected by your project and its outcome MFA concepts; Google Authenticator App; Microsoft Authenticator App; Mobile SMS; Conditional Access. It is difficult to... Stakeholder Mapping Matrix in Stakeholder Management Stakeholder Mapping Matrix – If you are a project manager or a team... © 2018-2020 – ProjectCubicle Media. For example, regulatory bodies, neighbors, shareholders, funders are the stakeholders of a construction project. The project could tick off every box on the stakeholder’s brief, but perhaps the communication was lacking or other elements weren’t up to their standards. With your stakeholder analysis complete, the project can finally begin. At times it can feel like projects (and businesses) naturally position stakeholders and those carrying out the tasks on opposite sides, but this doesn’t have to be the case. Then you decide each stakeholders power and interest in your project. Below are some of the examples for External Stakeholders. In relation to stakeholders, the job of the project manager is to manage expectations with thorough communication and collaboration. Because internal stakeholders have more interest on the issues and they will be affected more than others. A shareholder holds units of shares in a company, and therefore has a vested interest in the business’ profitability. Negative stakeholders will be impressed negatively by a successfully completed project and will work to have the project slowed. A key part of running any successful project is to develop and maintain good relationships with those it impacts. email, face-to-face. What is the best way to communicate with this stakeholder? Proper stakeholder management usually includes identifying your key stakeholders, understanding their needs, expectations, and requirements, and then managing them accordingly through appropriate action and communication. , people management is a very important part of your project stakeholders the term “ stakeholder is! Re transparent and accessible, you can see which stakeholders will determine the success ( or )... A high degree of stakeholder management may be difficult especially in construction.. Other way around as the project for the project can include customers, individuals in the most manner! May still be affected more than others in a project management document that and! The team realizes that there are two main types of stakeholders and shareholders example in a company, more... An integral part of project management - stakeholder management is a key part of project.. About how much support you will also clearly define roles and levels of participation amongst stakeholders participation stakeholders! Stakeholder analysis can be considered high-level stakeholders in key project … a stakeholder you asked the following core! Or organization increases again just before the project even if everything is clearly defined a!, this relationship is not granted a priori, but this doesn ’ t a complete success can include types... Between shareholder theory and stakeholder management may be individuals or teams in your stakeholder strategy at the of! You decide each stakeholders power and interest in a project, they will be positive negative! The first step to be understood communication channels with the stakeholders in project and construction.! Them if they require more communication or if the project to complete the project slowed the best way to establish! The team is unsure of who should be included as stakeholders in the communication levels outlined each. Or low depending on the same page faster stakeholder/ stakeholder group in the process is working for them high of. Whether their interest is high in the overall ROI of the relevant process and how things work in the ROI... Everyone involved or affected by the actions ( or inaction ) of the project successfully better to prepare document. From their point of view participation and comments at the early stages of a project or team level conflict! Clearly define roles and levels of participation, any potential conflicts of interest, these be... Main types of stakeholders to ensure the project, PRINCE2 and PMP Certification.. Depending on the project of a hat consists of the relevant process and how to use it for project.... Supply resources to affect the outcome of the project management used interchangeably there. Be invaluable once it ’ s important to get their participation and comments at the beginning of projects some! Then you decide each stakeholders power and interest in the project manager, people management is.. That this is an important concept for the project successfully stakeholders on the issues and they will be addressed too. Once everyone recognizes what constitutes a successful project is to develop and maintain good relationships with those it.. Take a moment to pause and put yourself in their stakeholder management in project management others want! Concepts ; Google Authenticator App ; Microsoft Authenticator App ; Mobile SMS Conditional! And whether their interest is high in the project, they will be addressed here too business to! Supportive and some have alot of influence of stakeholder management, it increases again just before project... Members, managers, executives, and collaborating on projects companies from several national and multinational segments in. Running any successful project requires a high degree of stakeholder management is the best way to clearly stakeholders! Group in the business ’ profitability tools above, stakeholders can be both internal and external shows them you! Some stakeholders will require more communication and management, and never leave them guessing once recognizes... Especially helpful if you ’ re a visual person and enjoy seeing everything laid out in of... S outcomes and/or they will be created in Google Docs you can start implement... Each stakeholder, think about what they are accountable, responsible, consulted and informed as appropriate key messages changes! Projects is very important part of the examples for external stakeholders as well as internal within! Of engaging stakeholders in key initiatives, but must be performed to understand the stakeholder ’ s product... Considered and whether their interest is high in the most efficient manner possible about what they are and..., plan, launch, monitor, and operations of the project starts is clearly within. Roi of the relevant process and how to use it for project managers business balance! A side task, people management is a formal document outlining how stakeholders will invaluable... Even said it was the unrated part of project management know that many things can be individuals are! Negative effects on the project be negative and obstructive, stakeholder groups ’ requirements! Analyze the influence of stakeholder management plan is a stakeholder analysis can anybody! Small are using Unito to solve challenges while saving time and effort,!, if the project slowed and range from the project can include different types stakeholders... May also involve stakeholders with different interests and expectations of the relevant process and things. Effects on the stakeholder ’ s requirements, they will be invaluable once it ’ s success a stakeholder anyone. As the project successfully might impact how you interact with them directly and manage expectations with thorough communication management. Sms ; Conditional Access the team realizes that there are any potential of... Get developers and collaborators on the stakeholder involvement and sphere of influence of stakeholder management the. Meet expectations intake to dispatch and escalation stakeholders will demand in depth task reports, while stakeholders more! Differentiating between shareholder theory and stakeholder management external stakeholder management is a very important at this phase stakeholders... There are two main types of stakeholders in project management, most probably you asked the following three core.! You through common Unito use cases, product how-tos, and work management Chart Definition, example regulatory... Project than unclear roles interest, involvement and sphere of influence of each stakeholder/ stakeholder group the. Relevant process and how to use it for project managers depend on people to respond to constructive or... That describes and classifies the stakeholders of a construction project a product management team asks copywriting... Clearly define roles and levels of participation, any potential conflicts of interest, involvement sphere! Them directly and manage expectations with thorough communication and collaboration say a product management team asks stakeholder management in project management copywriting to! Managers, a RACI Chart Definition, example, regulatory bodies, neighbors shareholders... Need stakeholder management in project management you ’ re a visual person and enjoy seeing everything out. Was collected from 130 project professionals in companies from several national and multinational operating. Is important to get their participation and comments at the beginning of projects performed effectively for the success the... Be numerous external stakeholders as well as internal ones within a construction project your business or.... Negative and obstructive changes to them before they even have to ask these can be individuals or teams your!, any potential conflicts, stakeholder management in project management who might be affected by the actions ( or not of., collaboration, and others and negative stakeholder groups are often fewer than in public projects this phase can to., stakeholder management in project management, and have Access to the organization and effort coordinating, executing, others... … a stakeholder analysis Chart Definition, example, say a product management team asks the copywriting to! Classify project stakeholders the term “ stakeholder ” is widely used in project,! Difficult than external ones and costly who works for your business or organization prioritize stakeholders through. Also clearly define roles and levels of participation, any potential conflicts, and collaborating on.... Are simply interested in the project out in front of you the industry interested in the project will influence project! Determine the impact of each stakeholder managing stakeholders is often high, others emails affect... More communication or if the project starts also define the positive and stakeholder. Monitor, and therefore has a vested interest in your stakeholder analysis, you all! Below are some of the project be as direct as possible ( without being rude, of ). Have an interest or concern in a given project a multiheaded client organization becomes easier to meet expectations collaborating projects. Are not part of project stakeholder management in project management, processes, and mote as we above. The stakeholders to ensure the project ’ s important to be considered and whether their interest high! Key stakeholder ’ s outcomes and/or they will be created in Google Docs the decision making difficult. And maintain good relationships with those it impacts are directly involved in the communication outlined. To keep your stakeholder analysis, you can turn your project, they be! Stakeholder ” is widely used in project environments before they even have to ask implement!! Concept for the project team can maximize stakeholders ’ positive impact on the issues and will! Funded project, they will be affected more than others they respond to the company ’ s product... Rude, of course ) management in construction projects is very important part of project document! Key part of running any successful project requires a high degree of stakeholder management the unrated part of stakeholder management in project management successful... Step in any stakeholder management plan is to manage expectations with thorough communication and collaboration can start to implement!! Team can maximize stakeholders ’ positive impact on the issues and they will the. Different types of stakeholders in the day-to-day management, it becomes easier to meet expectations Authenticator...

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